Rough Draft Quantitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations.
The World Health Organization has described childhood obesity as a global epidemic that generally affects both developed and developing countries. It has direct and indirect negative effects on the mental, social, economic and physical health of children and their respective families. According to Tarro et al., (2014), children who are affected are more likely to suffer from lifelong threatening lifestyle diseases which include type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular illnesses, different types of cancers and even hypertension later in life.Rough Draft Quantitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations.
Due to its impact on communities, families and the entire healthcare system, the federal government has prioritized research in this subject with an aim of prevention and reducing the prevalence (Lobstein et al., (2015).
According to research, the most effective strategies of reducing or preventing obesity are school based programs since children aged 8-15 years spend most of their time in school as compared to at home (Mahmood et al., (2014). With such a good setting that positively influences change in behavior, children are more likely to imitate the actions and adopt healthy eating and lifestyle habits. In this paper, two quantitative research articles which address the effectiveness of school-based programs in comparison to childhood obesity family-based programs. A detailed critique of the background of the study, study methodology, study findings and ethical considerations of each article will be presented.Rough Draft Quantitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations.
Background of Study
The study by Mahmood et al., (2014) purposed to determine how effective school-based intervention programs were in reducing the incidence and prevalence of obesity and overweight among school-going children. Apart from the researchers identifying the potential adverse health consequences of childhood obesity, the study was inspired by the background knowledge that schools are a preferred avenue for interventions that direct childhood obesity especially in the United States. The researchers supported that the use of these programs could even be easier since the US had already approved and implemented legislation guidelines that support school-based interventions.
In the study by Amini et al., (2015), the researchers identified childhood and adolescent obesity and overweight as globally increasing health problems. Due to its direct and indirect consequences, urgent action to combat it must be one that guarantees optimal outcomes. The researchers were critical to note that majority of present studies include those done in homes, clinics and community centers. They further identified that; schools can be a unique study setting with a crucial environment since children are intrinsically exposed to physical exercise and dietary factors. Therefore, the objective of the study was to establish how effective school-based interventions were, in controlling and preventing childhood obesity and overweight.Rough Draft Quantitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations.
Method of Study
In the study by Mahmood et al., (2014), the researchers used key search terms such as obesity, physical activity, school going children and exercise to search for clinical trial studies of childhood obesity and overweight which also measured outcomes in incidence and prevalence rates. The quantitative data that was extracted was synthesized using the Mantel-Haenzel statistics model, analysis model and the risk ratio measure of effect. I2 statistics, chi2, and a P-value. I2 > 50% and P-value of chi2 < 0.05 were used to assess for heterogeneity.of the articles
Amini et al., (2015) in their study conducted a comprehensive search of literature in the scientific databases of Cochrane, PubMed, Embase and ProQuest between 2001 January and 2011 December. The researchers also searched for policy reports and briefs written by relevant professional bodies. This search included full articles, meta-analyses, policy reports and briefs which targeted adolescents and children published between the years 2001-2011. To maintain validity, the researchers excluded articles which were reviews of reviews, studies whose interventions were in other settings rather than schools and those which had no control group. Reviewers were used to ensure that all the articles selected met the eligibility criteria and were valid.Rough Draft Quantitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations.
Results of Study
In the study by Mahmood et al., (2014), a total of 1289 studies were found in the databases as follows: Ovid Medline 325, Embase 275, CINAHL 468, and PubMed 216. By hand search, 3 additional studies and 5 secondary references were found. After screening based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria and studies that were duplicates, 119 studies remained. Through abstract screening, 28 studies which were either community-based, involved parents or both school and community based and 76 that were non-experimental were excluded (Mahmood et al., 2014).
The remainder of 15 studies were appropriate and were assessed for quality. Besides, the researchers excluded ten of the clinical trials since they basically involved cost-effectiveness analysis of an intervention with outcomes that were otherwise rather than reduction of obesity and overweight. The detailed summary of the entire data selection process and the features of the studies which were excluded was then summarized and presented on a prisma flow diagram. Meta-analysis revealed a statistical significance of school-based programs on obese children as follows: risk ratio of 0.58, Confidence interval of 95% (CI) (0.43-0.78), with 42% obesity reduction prevalence (Mahmood et al., 2014).Rough Draft Quantitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations.
Amini et al., (2015) found 8 reviews which included 4 meta-analyses and4 systematic reviews that had examined 106 articles. During the first phase of selecting articles, 3 reports were screened and later filtered in the second selection phase. The researchers found no policy brief. The details of each of the studies were presented in a table format. 1 meta-analytic study failed to report the age range of the studies that it included, while other included only a single intervention strategy (physical activity or nutritional education) to evaluate the studies. Others considered both strategies (Amini et al., 2015). Up to 62.5% of the studies either had a scoring or quality assessment system. The reviews and meta-analyses ranged from the year 1996-2010, 44 years. However, the researchers found no limitations of starting the search for systematic reviews. Majority of the primary studies were conducted in USA followed by other European countries (Amini et al., 2015).Rough Draft Quantitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations.
Implications to Clinical Practice
Both studies suggested effectiveness of school-based intervention programs to prevent and reduce obesity and overweight in school settings. Studies which supported physical activity reported up to 61% lesser risk of obesity in the intervention group as compared to the control group. This should however be integrated with other interventions such as aerobic dance thrice a week, health education twice every week and dietary/nutritional modification. To increase chances of successful outcomes, children should be included in decision making processes especially in their school menu as this promotes their ability to make healthy nutritional choices. With the appropriate guidance, they should be discouraged from taking drinks which are sugar-sweetened, foods with high fats and calories. These approaches help to reduce the BMI for most children in the long-term.Rough Draft Quantitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations.
The validity and reliability of all studies was ensured through a quality assessment of the reviewed articles by qualified reviewers. Apart from helping to prevent bias, this helped to safeguard the interests of the reviewed articles as well as that of the researchers. In all the studies that were reviewed, participation into either an intervention or control group was voluntary with written informed consent.Rough Draft Quantitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations.
Rough Draft Quantitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations
Write a critical appraisal that demonstrates comprehension of two quantitative research studies. Use the "Research Critique Guidelines – Part II" document to organize your essay. Successful completion of this assignment requires that you provide a rationale, include examples, and reference content from the study in your responses.
Use the practice problem and two quantitative, peer-reviewed research articles you identified in the Topic 1 assignment to complete this assignment.
In a 1,000–1,250 word essay, summarize two quantitative studies, explain the ways in which the findings might be used in nursing practice, and address ethical considerations associated with the conduct of the study.Rough Draft Quantitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
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Rough Draft Quantitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations.