NURS 6050: Policy and Advocacy for Improving Population Health.
Regardless of political affiliation, every citizen has a stake in healthcare policy decisions. Hence, it is little wonder why healthcare items become such high-profile components of presidential agendas. It is also little wonder why they become such hotly debated agenda items.
In Part 1 of this module’s Assignment, you were asked to begin work on an Agenda Comparison Grid to compare the impact of the current/sitting U.S. president and the two previous presidents’ agendas on the healthcare item you selected for study. In this Discussion, you will share your first draft with your colleagues to receive feedback to be applied to your final version.NURS 6050: Policy and Advocacy for Improving Population Health.
Review the Resources and reflect on the importance of agenda setting.
Consider how federal agendas promote healthcare issues and how these healthcare issues become agenda priorities.
Review Part 1 of the Module 1 Assignment and complete the requirements for this Discussion.NURS 6050: Policy and Advocacy for Improving Population Health.
Introduction Nurses comprise the majority of the United States healthcare workforce. Besides, they spend most of the time with patients in community and clinical settings. As a result, they can easily determine population health needs and how different factors can affect the health and well-being of families, clients and communities. Since nurses utilize their vast experience and education to command expert knowledge and influence positive outcomes in all aspects of care, they can make major contributions in health policy promotion to determine and address issues that affect populations. One such issue is the opioid epidemic, which causes thousands of deaths due to misuse and abuse of prescription opioids and heroin (Christie et al., 2017).NURS 6050: Policy and Advocacy for Improving Population Health. Nurses play a vital role in providing solutions to this epidemic through health education, prevention, treatment and options for recovery for individuals with opioid use disorder. The purpose of this paper is to determine the impact of President Trump’s agenda on the opioid epidemic compared with President Barrack and George Bush administrations. It analyses how the presidential administrations approached the issue, their administrative agendas and financial allocations. The opioid epidemic was part of Trump’s presidential agenda hence nurses can actively participate in policy decision-making.NURS 6050: Policy and Advocacy for Improving Population Health.
Nurses educate, give prescriptions, dispense drugs, and give mental and physical care to individuals struggling with opioid use disorders and related consequences. Agenda Comparison Grid and Fact Sheet or Talking Points Brief Assignment Template for Part 1 and Part 2 Part 1: Agenda Comparison Grid Population Health Concern The Opioid Crisis Population Health Concern Description Deaths related to drug overdoses continue to increase among men and women of all ethnicities in the USA (McCarty, Priest, & Korthuis, 2018). Most deaths are due to prescription drugs, particularly opioids. The deaths were because of a lack of knowledge of abuse, misuse, and overdose of prescription drugs. Administration (President Name) Donald Trump Barrack Obama George Bush Administrative agenda President Trump’s administration declared the opioid crisis as an emergency. The administration further unveiled strategies to deal with the crisis by promoting access to treatment, rehabilitation and recovery services, availing and distributing drugs that reversed overdoses (Murthy, 2016). NURS 6050: Policy and Advocacy for Improving Population Health.
His administration focused on improving access to care so that affected communities, ethnicities and groups could access treatment easily. It also restricted the ability of prescribers to overprescribe (McCarty, Priest, & Korthuis, 2018). This administration focused on making law enforcement budgets since it perceived addiction as a punishable crime rather than an issue of public health significance (Murthy, 2016). Resource and Financial Allocations In the year 2018, the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) spent more than $900 million to support local and state governments to fund opioid programs (McCarty, Priest, & Korthuis, 2018). Training and providing first- responders access to overdose-reversing drugs. Allocation of resources and funds to law enforcement officers and enrolling offenders for rehabilitation or imprisonment. Approach to the Issue A five-point strategic approach addressed the issue. This included; prevention efforts, providing treatment, recovery services, participating in research and advanced practice. The administration increased access of underserved communities to services. Nurses and physicians (primary health providers) were educated to improve treatment adherence and reduce stigma. Approached as a punishable crime than a public health issue. Therefore, the administration emphasized law enforcement measures to address the issue, which left most affected communities without treatment (Christie et al., 2017). NURS 6050: Policy and Advocacy for Improving Population Health.
Part 2: Agenda Comparison Grid Analysis Administration (President Name) (Donald J. Trump) (Obama Barack) (George W. Bush) Administrative Agency -The opioid crisis was declared a public health emergency of significance. Formation of a commission (Commission on Combating Drug Addiction and the Opioid Crisis) under the leadership of New Jersey Governor Christ Christie, which recommended 56 ways the opioid crisis could be addressed (McCarty, Priest, & Korthuis, 2018). -INTERDICT (International Narcotics Trafficking Emergency Response By Detecting Incoming Contraband With Technology) was signed (Christie et al., 2017). -more aggressive than George Bush - Signed the CARA (Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act) in 2016 into law. This promoted the availability of naloxone to help address the crisis (Christie et al., 2017). -Signed the FSA (Fair Sentencing Act) into law in 2010 thus different drugs were sentenced differently (McCarty, Priest, & Korthuis, 2018). Implemented the PDAPL(Prescription Drug Abuse Prevention Plan) - The disaster was just beginning during the administration of President Bush. -He was more proactive than active in addressing the crisis. -The federal government did not have adequate resources to address the issue and this promoted the illegal drug market (Murthy, 2016). Agenda Setting The administrative leadership set and maintained the agenda using a five-point strategy that includes; prevention efforts, treatment, recovery services, continuous research, and advanced practice. The administration championed universal health coverage through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act that guaranteed health services to resource-rich and resource-limited settings. The administration took a legal approach to set and maintain the agenda. The issue was a form of punishable crime and those affected worsened. Sponsor/Champion James Winnefeld, an admiral who lost a son in 2017 to an opioid overdose. Sheldon Whitehouse, the senator who introduced the CARA Act that became law in 2016 during the Obama presidency (McCarty, Priest, & Korthuis, 2018). . The first lady of the US Hilary Clinton when the crisis had just started. Part 3: Fact Sheet Significance of the Opioid Crisis for the Legislative Agenda Epidemiology • People of all races, gender, and age are affected by the opioid crisis • Older adults are at a higher risk due to over-reliance on opioids for painful chronic diseases • According to WHO, 2.6% of individuals aged 60 years or older use prescription opioids without medical indications (Murthy, 2016). • An estimated 1.2% are diagnosed with opioid use disorder (OUD) later in life.NURS 6050: Policy and Advocacy for Improving Population Health.
Physical, Social, Physiological and Psychological Effects • Long term effects lead to respiratory complications, euphoria, and drowsiness • In extreme incidences, others may develop OUD, withdrawal, addiction, social and interpersonal issues. Mortality and Morbidity Rates • Annually, the opioid crisis claims more than 350,000 people in the US. • More than 70,000 deaths from medication overdoses occurred in 2017 and up to 40,000 included the use of opioids (McCarty, Priest & Korthuis, 2018). • Over the years, morbidity and mortality rates have increased gradually. Economic Implications • It is costly for the government, households, and individuals to manage OUD and related consequences • In the FY2018-2019, an estimated $11 billion was used to address the opioid crisis (McCarty, Priest & Korthuis, 2018). Nurse’s Role In Opioid Crisis Agenda Setting Prevention and Early Recognition • Nurses are the first contacts with patients • In the community, inpatient and outpatient settings, they spend the most time with patients • Can play a major role in early recognition and prevention of opioid abuse and misuse Prescription Monitoring • Monitor prescriptions to identify patients who are gradually being addicted to opioids. Advocacy • Advocate for the implementation of new strategies and policies for pain management (Milstead & Short, 2019). • Participate in writing new standards for protocols and prescriptions for treating opioid addiction Conclusion • Deaths related to drug overdoses continue to increase among men and women of all ethnicities in the USA • Most deaths are due to prescription drugs, particularly opioids. • These deaths are because of a lack of knowledge of abuse, misuse, and overdose of prescription drugs • Taking part in policy implementation can help to reduce the physical, social, economic and psychological effects of opioids • Through policy, nurses should champion for implementation of new strategies and policies for pain management • They can also take part in writing new standards for protocols and prescriptions for managing opioid addiction.NURS 6050: Policy and Advocacy for Improving Population Health.
Agenda Comparison Grid and Fact Sheet or Talking Points Brief Assignment Template for Part 1 and Part 2 Part 1: Agenda Comparison Grid Use this Agenda Comparison Grid to document information about the population health/healthcare issue your selected and the presidential agendas. By completing this grid, you will develop a more in depth understanding of your selected issue and how you might position it politically based on the presidential agendas. You will use the information in the Part 1: Agenda Comparison Grid to complete the remaining Part 2 and Part 3 of your Assignment. Identify the Population Health concern you selected. Describe the Population Health concern you selected and the factors that contribute to it. Administration (President Name) (Current President) (Previous President) (Previous President) Describe the administrative agenda focus related to this issue for the current and two previous presidents. Identify the allocations of financial and other resources that the current and two previous presidents dedicated to this issue. Explain how each of the presidential administrations approached the issue. Part 2: Agenda Comparison Grid Analysis Using the information you recorded in Part 1: Agenda Comparison Grid, complete the following to document information about the population health/healthcare issue your selected Administration (President Name) (Current President) (Previous President) (Previous President) Which administrative agency would most likely be responsible for helping you address the healthcare issue you selected? How do you think your selected healthcare issue might get on the agenda for the current and two previous presidents? How does it stay there? Who would you choose to be the entrepreneur/ champion/sponsor of the healthcare issue you selected for the current and two previous presidents? Note: Part 3: of the Module 1: Assignment: Agenda Comparison Grid and Fact Sheet or Talking Points Brief is a 1-page Fact Sheet or Talking Points Brief the you will create in a separate document.NURS 6050: Policy and Advocacy for Improving Population Health.